AP Chapter 6/9


AP European History: The Western Heritage Since 1300

Chapter 6: New Directions in Thought and Culture in the 16th & 17th Centuries

(# 202-235)

Chapter 9: The Age of Enlightenment: 18th Century Thought

(# 311-352)

Chapter 6:

Learning Objectives:

  1. What was the scientific revolution”
  2. What impact did the new science have on philosophy?
  3. What was the social and political context for scientific inquiry in the 17th century?
  4. What role did women play in the scientific revolution?
  5. What efforts were made to reconcile the new science and religion?
  6. What explains the witch hunts and panics of the 16th and 17th centuries?
  7. How did baroque art serve both religious and secular ends?

 Chapter Outline:

  1. Scientific Revolution
  2. Philosophy Responds to Changing Science

III. New Institutions of Expanding Natural Science

  1. Women in the World of the Scientific Revolution
  2. New Science and Religious Faith
  3. Continuing Superstition

VII. Baroque Art

VIII. In Perspective

 Chapter 9:

Learning Objectives:

  1. What was the intellectual and social background of the Enlightenment?
  2. Who were the philosophes?
  3. How did the philosophes challenge traditional religious ideas and institutions?
  4. How did the philosophes apply Enlightenment ideas to social and economic problems?
  5. How did the philosophes apply Enlightenment ideas to political issues?
  6. What role did women play in the Englightenment?
  7. How did Rococo and Neoclassicm styles reflect and contribute to the prevailing trends of the age?
  8. What was Enlightened absolutism?

 Chapter Outline:

  1. Formative influences on the Enlightenment
  2. The Philosophes

III. The Enlightenment and religion

  1. The Enlightenment and society
  2. Political thought of the Philosophes
  3. Women in the thought and practice of the Enlightenment

VII. Rococo and Neo-classical styles in 18th century art

VII. Enlightened absolutism

VIII. In Perspective

CHAPTER 6 Review Questions

The Scientific Revolution:

  1. What did Copernicus, Brahe, Kepler, Galileo, and Newton each contribute to the scientific revolution? Which do you think make the most important contributions and why? What did Francis Bacon contribute to the foundation of scientific thought?
  2. How would you define the term scientific revolution? In what ways was it truly revolutionary? Which is more enduring, a political revolution or an intellectual one?

Philosophy Responds to Changing Science:

  1. What were the differences between the political philosophies of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke? How did each view human nature? Would you rather live under a government designed by Hobbes or Locke?  Why?

Women in the World of the Scientific Revolution:

  1. Why were women unable to participate fully in the new science? How did family relationships help some women become involved in the advance of natural philosophy?

The New Science and Religious Faith:

  1. Why did the Catholic Church condemn Galileo? How did Pascal seek to reconcile faith and reason?  How did English natural theology support economic expansion?

Continuing Superstition:

  1. How do you explain the phenomena of witchcraft and witch hunts in an age of scientific enlightenment? Why did the witch panics occur in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries?  How might the Reformation have contributed to them?

CHAPTER 9 Review Questions

Formative Influences on the Enlightenment:

  1. How did the Enlightenment change basic Western attitudes toward reform, faith, and reason? What were the major formative influences on the philosophes? How important were Voltaire and the Encyclopedia in the success of the Enlightenment?

The Enlightenment and Religion:

  1. Why did some philosophes consider organized religion to be their greatest enemy? What were the basic tenets of deism? How did Jewish writers contribute to Enlightenment thinking about religion?  What are the similarities and differences between the Enlightenment evaluation of Islam and its evaluations of Christianity and Judaism?

Women in the Thought and Practice of the Enlightenment:

  1. What were the attitudes of the philosophes toward women? What was Rousseau’s view of women? What were the separate spheres he imagined men and women occupying?  What were Mary Wollstonecraft’s criticisms of Rousseau’s view?

Political Thought of the Philosophes:

  1. How did the views of the mercantilists about the earth’s resources differ from those of Adam Smith in his book The Wealth of Nations? Why might Smith be regarded as an advocate of the consumer? How did his theory of history work to the detriment of less economically advanced non-European peoples?  How did some Enlightenment writers criticize European empires?
  2. How did the political views of Montesquieu differ from those of Rousseau? Was Montesquieu’s view of England accurate?  Was Rousseau a child of the Enlightenment or its enemy?  Which did Rousseau value more, the individual or society?

Enlightened Absolutism:

  1. Were the enlightened monarchs true believers in the ideals of the philosophes, or was their enlightenment a mere veneer? Was their power really absolute?  What motivated their reforms?  What does the partition of Poland indicate about the spirit of enlightened absolutism?


     baroque(232)                          scientific revolution(203)          physiocrats(325)

    empericism(208)                       deism(319)                               Rococo(339

    Enlightenment(218)                  laissez-faire(327)

    Ptolemaic systems(204)             Neoclassicism(336)


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