AP Chapter 4


AP European History: The Western Heritage Since 1300

Chapter 4: The Age of Religious Wars


 Learning Objectives:

  1. How did religious conflict in Europe evolve over the course of the 2nd half of the 16th Century?
  2. What caused the civil war between the Huguenots and the Catholics in France and what was the outcome?
  3. How was Philip II able to dominate international politics for much of the latter half of the 16th Century?
  4. What role Catholic and Protestant extremism play in the struggle for supremacy between England and Spain?
  5. What toll did the Thirty Years’ war take on Germany?

 Chapter Outline:

  1. Renewed Religious Struggle
  2. The French Wars of Religion (1562-1598)

III. Imperial Spain and Philip II (r. 1556-1598)

  1. England and Spain (1553-1603)
  2. The Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648)
  3. In Perspective


 Renewed Religious Struggle

  1. How did politics shape the religious positions of the French leaders? What led to the Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre, and what did it achieve?

Imperial Spain & Philip II

  1. How did Spain gain a position of dominance in the sixteenth century? What were Philip II’s successes and failures?
  2. Henry of Navarre (Henry IV of France), Elizabeth I, and William of Orange were all politiques. What does that term mean and why does it apply to these three rulers?

England & Spain

  1. What led to the establishment of the Anglican Church in England? Why did Mary I fail? What was Elizabeth I’s settlement, and why was it difficult to impose on England?

Who were her detractors and what were their criticisms?

Thirty Years’ War

  1. Why was the Thirty Years’ War fought? Was politics or religion more important in determining the outcome of the war? What were the main terms of the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648?
  2. Why has the Thirty Years’ War been called the outstanding example in European history of meaningless conflict? Was it really such? Were the results worth the cost of the war?


baroque(135)                           Huguenots(136)                        Thirty-Nine Articles(152)                     

Congregationalists(153)      politiques(136)                           presbyters(135)

Counter-Reformation(135)                                                         Prebyterians(153)

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