AP Chapter 10/11

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AP European History: The Western Heritage Since 1300

Chapter 10: The French Revolution

(Pg# 353-391)

Chapter 11: The Age of Napoleon and the Triumph of Romanticism

(Pg# 392-427)

Chapter 10:

Learning Objectives:

  1. How did the financial weakness of the French monarchy lay the foundations of revolution in 1789?
  2. How did the calling of the Estates General lead to revolution?
  3. How did the National Constituent Assembly reorganize France?
  4. What led to the radicalization of the French Revolution?
  5. How did war and ideology combine to create the Reign of Terror?
  6. What course did the French Revolution take after 1794?

Chapter Outline:

  1. The crisis of the French monarchy
  2. The Revolution of 1789

III. The Reconstruction of France

  1. The end of the monarchy: A Second Revolution
  2. Europe at war with the Revolution
  3. The Reign of Terror

VII. The Thermidorian Reaction

VII. In Perspective

Chapter 10 Review Questions

The Crisis of the French Monarchy:

  1. Why has France been called a rich nation with an impoverished government? How did the financial weaknesses of the French monarchy lay the foundations of the revolution of 1789?
  2. What were Louis XVI’s most serious mistakes during the French Revolution? Had he been a more, able ruler, could the French Revolution have been avoided or a constitutional monarchy could have succeeded? Did the revolution ultimately have little to do with the competence of the monarch?

The Revolution of 1789:

  1. How was the Estates General transformed into the National Assembly? How does the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen reflect the social and political values of the eighteenth-century Enlightenment? How were France and its government reorganized in the early years of the revolution?  Why has the Civil Constitution of the Clergy been called the greatest blunder of the National Assembly?

The Reconstruction of France:

  1. Why were some political factions dissatisfied with the constitutional settlement of 1791? What was the revolution of 1792 and why did it occur? Who were the sans-culottes, and how did they become a factor in the politics of the period?  How influential were they during the Terror in particular?  Why did the sans-culottes and the Jacobins cooperate at first?  Why did that cooperation end?

Europe at War with the Revolution:

  1. Why did France go to war with Austria in 1792? What were the benefits and drawbacks for France of fighting an external war in the midst of a domestic political revolution?

The Reign of Terror:

  1. What were the causes of the Terror? How did the rest of Europe react to the French Revolution and the Terror?  How did events in France influence the last two partitions of Poland?

Thermidorian Reaction:

  1. A motto of the French Revolution was “equality, liberty, and fraternity.” How did the revolution both support and violate this motto? Did French women benefit from the revolution?  Did French peasants benefit from it?

Chapter 11 Review Questions

The Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte:

  1. How did Napoleon rise to power? What groups supported him? What were his major domestic achievements?  Did his rule fulfill or betray the French Revolution? What sort of challenge did the Haitian Revolution pose to France’s commitment to liberty, equality, and fraternity?

Napoleon’s Empire:

  1. What regions made up Napoleon’s realm, and what was the status of each region within it? Did his administration show foresight, or was the empire a burden he could not afford?

European Response to the Empire:

  1. 3. Why did Napoleon decide to invade Russia? Why did the operation fail?

The Congress of Vienna and the European Settlement:

  1. What were the results of the Congress of Vienna? Was the Vienna settlement a success?

Romantic Questioning of the Supremacy of Reason:

  1. Why did Romantic writers champion feelings over reason? What questions did Rousseau and Kant raise about reason?

Romantic Views of Nationalism and History:

  1. Why was poetry important to Romantic writers? How did the Romantic concept of religion differ from Reformation Protestantism and Enlightenment deism?  How did Romantic ideas and sensibilities modify European ideas of Islam and the Middle East?  What were the cultural results of Napoleon’s invasion of Egypt?

    Vocabulary:

    Chapter 10:

    Convention(374)          levee en masse(382)     September Massacres(374)

    emigres(372)                Reign of Terror(379)    Thermidorian Reaction(386)

    Jacobins(373)                sans-culottes(374)         Third Estate(357)

    Chapter 11:

    categorical imperative (415)     Romanticism(414)

    Consulate(394)                         Sturm und Drang(414)

    Methodism(422)

 

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