AP Chapter 1


AP European History: The Western Heritage Since 1300

Chapter 1: The Late Middle Ages: Social and Political Breakdown (1300-1453)


 Learning Objectives:

  1. What were the social and economic consequences of the “Black Death?”
  2. How did the Hundred Years’ war contribute to a growing sense of national identity in France and England?
  3. How did secular rulers challenge papal authority in the 14th and 15th Centuries?
  4. How did Mongol rule shape Russia’s development?

 Chapter Outline:

  1. The Black Death
  2. The Hundred Years’ War and the Rise of National Sentiment

III. Ecclesiastical Breakdown and Revival: The Late Medieval Church

  1. Medieval Russia


Black Death:

  1. What were the causes of the Black Death, and why did it spread do quickly throughout Western Europe? b. Where was it most virulent? c. How did it affect European society? d. How important do you think the disease was in changing the course of history?

The Hundred Years’ War:

  1. What were the underlying and precipitating causes of the Hundred Years’ War? b. What advantages did each side have? c. Why were the French finally able to drive the English almost entirely out of France?

The Late Medieval Church:

  1. Why did Pope Boniface VIII quarrel with King Philip the Fair? b. Why was Boniface so important in the conflict?
  2. How had political conditions changed since the reign of Pope Innocent III in the late twelfth century, and what did it mean for the Papacy?
  3. How did the Church change from 1200 to 1450? b. What was its response to the growing power of monarchists?
  4. How great an influence did the Church have on secular events?

Avignon Papacy & The Great Schism:

  1. What was the Avignon Papacy, and why did it occur? b. How did it affect the Papacy? c. What relationship did it have to the Great Schism? d. How did the Church become divided and how was it reunited? e. Why was the conciliar movement a setback for the Papacy?
  2. Why were kings in the late thirteenth and early fourteenth century able to control the Church more than the Church could control the kings? b. How did kings attack the Church during this period?


Black Death(35)                        Curia(49)                      Great Schism(53)          Lollards(52)

boyars(56)                    Donatism(52)                Hussites(52)                  taille(41)

conciliar theory(55)      Estates General(43)      Jacquerie(44)


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