AP Chapter 21

AP Chapter 21: Cold War Era


Learning Objectives:

  1. What were the origins of the Cold War?
  2. How did Khrushchev’s policies and reforms change the Soviet state after the repression of Stalin?
  3. How did the Berlin Wall and the Cuban Missile Crisis strain relations between the United States and the Soviet Union?
  4. What impact did Brezhnev have on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe?
  5. How did World War II serve as a catalyst for decolonization?
  6. Why was France so reluctant to decolonize?
  7. Why did European Communism collapse?
  8. How did ethnic tensions lead to civil war in Yugoslavia?
  9. What vision does Putin have of Russia’s place in the world?
  10. What forces gave rise to radical political Islamism?
  11. How did the events of September 11, 2001 transform the West?


Chapter Outline:

  1. The Emergence of the Cold War
  2. The Khrushchev era in the Soviet Union

III. Later Cold War confrontations

  1. The Brezhnev era
  2. Decolonization: The European retreat from empire
  3. The turmoil of French decolonization

VII. The collapse of European Communism

VIII. The collapse of Yugoslavia and civil war

  1. Putin and the Resurgence of Russia
  2. The rise of radical political Islamism
  3. A transformed west
  4. In perspectiveVocabulary:Brezhnev Doctrine (800) decolonization (786)  jihad (828)   perestroika (813)   Cold War (786)  detente (801)         Marshall Plan (788)                    Warsaw Pact (786) containment (788)  glasnost (813)  NATO  (786)Chapter 21 Review QuestionsThe Emergence of the Cold War:
    1. How did the United States and the Soviet Union come to dominate Europe after 1945? How would you define the policy of containment? In what areas of the world did the United States specifically try to contain Soviet power from 1945 to 1982? Why were 1956 and 1962 crucial years in the Cold War?

    The Khrushchev Era in the Soviet Union:

    1. How did Khrushchev’s policies and reforms change the Soviet state after the repression of Stalin? Why did many people consider Khrushchev reckless?

    Decolonization: The European Retreat from Empire:

    1. Why did the nations of Europe give up their empires? How did World War II affect the movement toward decolonization? How did Gandhi lead India toward independence?  How did French decolonization policies differ from Britain’s?  How did the United States become involved in Vietnam?

    The Collapse of European Communism:

    1. What internal political pressures did the Soviet Union experience in the 1970s and early 1980s? What steps did the Soviet government take to relieve these pressures? What role did Gorbachev’s attempted reforms play in the collapse of the Soviet Union?  What were the major events in Eastern Europe—particularly Poland—that contributed to the collapse of communism?  What are the major domestic challenges to the new Confederation of Independent States?

    The Collapse of Yugoslavia and Civil War:

    1. Was the former Yugoslavia a national state? Why did it break apart and slide into civil war? How did the West respond to this crisis?

    Putin and the Resurgence of Russia:

    1. What were the major difficulties that the Russian Federation faced in the 1990s and beyond? How did the policies of Yeltsin and Putin address them? How has Putin attempted to preside over a resurgence of Russian great power influence? How do his goals in part reflect concern over the example of the political disintegration of Yugoslavia?
    2. How did the American response to the attacks of September 11, 2001, divide the NATO alliance? Why do some European nations feel able to dissent from the U.S. position in the Middle East when they rarely did so during the Cold War?
    3. What were the major causes for the rise of radical political Islamism? In what ways is the present U.S. intervention in the Middle East a result of decolonization and in what ways are other factors at work?


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