AP Chapter 12

Chapter 12: Conservative Order and the Challenges of Reform (#428-461)

Learning Objectives:

  1. What were the goals of the Concert of Europe?
  2. How did early 19th-Century nationalists define the nation?
  3. What explains the strength of conservatism in the early 19th-Century?
  4. What sparked the wars of independence in Latin America?
  5. How did Russia, France, and Britain respond to challenges to the conservative order?

Chapter Outline:

  1. The Conservative Order
  2. The Emergence of Nationalism and Liberalism

III. Conservative Restoration in Europe

  1. The Conservative Order Shaken in Europe
  2. The Wars of Independence in Latin America


Concert of Europe(429)            conservatism (430)                    nationalism (431)

congress system (429)   Great Reform Bill (456)

Chapter 12 Review Questions

  1. What is nationalism? What were the goals of nationalists? What difficulties did nationalists confront in realizing those goals? Why was nationalism a special threat to the Austrian Empire?  What areas saw significant nationalist movements between 1815 and 1830?  Which were successful and which unsuccessful?
  2. What were the tenets of liberalism? Who were the liberals, and how did liberalism affect the political developments of the early nineteenth century? What is the relationship of liberalism to nationalism?
  3. What difficulties did the conservatives in Austria, Prussia, and Russia face after the Napoleonic wars? How did they attempt to solve those difficulties at home and in international affairs? What were the aims of the Concert of Europe?  How did the Congress of Vienna change international relations?
  1. What were the main reasons for Creole discontent with Spanish rule, and to what extent did Enlightenment political philosophy influence the Creole leaders? Who were some of the primary leaders of Latin American independence? Why was Brazil’s path to independence different from that of Spanish America?
  2. What were the main provisions of the constitution of the restored monarchy in France? What did Charles X hope to accomplish? Why did revolution break out in France in 1830?  What did this revolution achieve and what problems did it fail to resolve?
  3. Why did Britain avoid a revolution in the early 1830s? What was the purpose of the Great Reform Bill? What did it achieve?  Would you call it a “revolutionary” document?
  4. By approximately 1830, how had European political ambitions and the ideas of liberalism and nationalism begun to undermine the Ottoman Empire? Which Ottoman territories were lost by that date?
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